Traumatic brain injury and diet
Increasing attention is being paid to nutritional and metabolic management of traumatic brain injury patients. The gross metabolic changes that occur after injury have been found to be influenced by both macronutrients, that is, dietary ratios of fat, carbohydrates, and protein, and micronutrients, for example, vitamins and minerals. Alterations in diet and nutritional strategies have been shown to decrease both morbidity and mortality after injury. Despite this knowledge, defining optimal nutritional support following traumatic brain injury continues to be an ongoing challenge. Keywords brain, injury, metabolism, ketones, substrate, pituitary
April 1, 2013.
Brain Metabolism After Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic Brain Injury
Traumatic brain injury occurs more than any other disease in the United States, with an annual incidence of 3.5 million new cases. It affects men and women of all age groups, with the greatest incidence among children under 4 years of age and 14 to 19 years old. Traumatic brain injury is caused by the rapid movement of the brain within the skull and does not require direct contact with an object for injury to occur. Although there are pathophysiological similarities between glutamate excitotoxicity and hypoxic and ischemic brain injuries, it is the movement of the brain during traumatic brain injury that produces its unique time course and complex dysfunction.